Know more

About cookies

What is a "cookie"?

A "cookie" is a piece of information, usually small and identified by a name, which may be sent to your browser by a website you are visiting. Your web browser will store it for a period of time, and send it back to the web server each time you log on again.

Different types of cookies are placed on the sites:

  • Cookies strictly necessary for the proper functioning of the site
  • Cookies deposited by third party sites to improve the interactivity of the site, to collect statistics

Learn more about cookies and how they work

The different types of cookies used on this site

Cookies strictly necessary for the site to function

These cookies allow the main services of the site to function optimally. You can technically block them using your browser settings but your experience on the site may be degraded.

Furthermore, you have the possibility of opposing the use of audience measurement tracers strictly necessary for the functioning and current administration of the website in the cookie management window accessible via the link located in the footer of the site.

Technical cookies

Name of the cookie

Purpose

Shelf life

CAS and PHP session cookies

Login credentials, session security

Session

Tarteaucitron

Saving your cookie consent choices

12 months

Audience measurement cookies (AT Internet)

Name of the cookie

Purpose

Shelf life

atid

Trace the visitor's route in order to establish visit statistics.

13 months

atuserid

Store the anonymous ID of the visitor who starts the first time he visits the site

13 months

atidvisitor

Identify the numbers (unique identifiers of a site) seen by the visitor and store the visitor's identifiers.

13 months

About the AT Internet audience measurement tool :

AT Internet's audience measurement tool Analytics is deployed on this site in order to obtain information on visitors' navigation and to improve its use.

The French data protection authority (CNIL) has granted an exemption to AT Internet's Web Analytics cookie. This tool is thus exempt from the collection of the Internet user's consent with regard to the deposit of analytics cookies. However, you can refuse the deposit of these cookies via the cookie management panel.

Good to know:

  • The data collected are not cross-checked with other processing operations
  • The deposited cookie is only used to produce anonymous statistics
  • The cookie does not allow the user's navigation on other sites to be tracked.

Third party cookies to improve the interactivity of the site

This site relies on certain services provided by third parties which allow :

  • to offer interactive content;
  • improve usability and facilitate the sharing of content on social networks;
  • view videos and animated presentations directly on our website;
  • protect form entries from robots;
  • monitor the performance of the site.

These third parties will collect and use your browsing data for their own purposes.

How to accept or reject cookies

When you start browsing an eZpublish site, the appearance of the "cookies" banner allows you to accept or refuse all the cookies we use. This banner will be displayed as long as you have not made a choice, even if you are browsing on another page of the site.

You can change your choices at any time by clicking on the "Cookie Management" link.

You can manage these cookies in your browser. Here are the procedures to follow: Firefox; Chrome; Explorer; Safari; Opera

For more information about the cookies we use, you can contact INRAE's Data Protection Officer by email at cil-dpo@inrae.fr or by post at :

INRAE

24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

Menu Logo Principal AgroParisTech Université Paris-Saclay

INRA GABI Unit

GABI : Génétique Animale et Biologie IntégrativeUnité Mixte de Recherche INRA - AgroParisTech

What is chocolat plumage in the domestic chicken ?

Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research Publication
Chicken plumage presents many genetically determined color variations. Chocolate plumage is characterized by a brown-chocolate color that replaces black in animals that carry the 'choc' mutation, described since 1996 as recessive and sex-associated. Seeral domestic mammals and in the quail, mutations for the gene coding for the Tyrosinase Related Protein 1 enzyme have been associated to colors such as 'havane', 'red' or 'brown'.

In an article published in the journal Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research, scientists from the joint research unit, UMR GABI (INRA/AgroParisTech, Jouy-en-Josas) looked for the 'choc' mutation using a sequence capture approach performed on the @BRIDGe core facilities. They rapidly identified a substitution in the coding region of TYRP1, that modified a very conserved amino acid (His214Asn). in parallel, Swedish, American and Chinese scientists performed a genetic linkage analysis that gave the same results. The way the mutation acts was discovered through analysis of the morhpology of melanosomes using transmission electronic microscopsy on the MIMA2 core facilities. The results indicate that the mutation is associated to an anomaly in the melanosome membrane structure: a modification of the color seems to be due to an packaging anomaly of the pigment in this organelle transmitted by the melanocyte to the keratinocyte. Whereas the TYRP1 enzyme was first considered as an actor in eumelanin synthesis, we show here that its role in the structure of melanosome is determinant. A PCR diagnostic test is available for breeders who are interested in this color.
 

Melanosomes_Poules_plumage_chocolat_web

Figure Legend: melanosomes from a chicken with black feathers (A: magnification 3000; B magnification 20 000) and a chocolat-color featherd chicken (C magnification 3000; D magnification 20 000).

Article

Li JY, Bed'hom B, Marthey S, Valade M, Dureux A, Moroldo M, Pechoux C, Coville JL, Gourichon D, Vieaud A, Dorshorst B, Andersson L, Tixier-Boichard M. 2019. A missense mutation in TYRP1 causes the chocolate plumage color in chicken and alters melanosome structure. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 32, 381-39

Contact