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INRA
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Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Logo Principal AgroParisTech Université Paris-Saclay

INRA GABI Unit

GABI : Génétique Animale et Biologie IntégrativeUnité Mixte de Recherche INRA - AgroParisTech

Anna-Charlotte Doublet will defend her PhD dissertation on Thursday, December 10

@INRAE
"Genetic diversity in the genomic era: evolution of inbreeding and its consequences in three French dairy cattle breeds"

The dissertation defense will be held by video-conferencing on Thursday December 10 at 2pm, in French.
To join the dissertation: https://eu.bbcollab.com/guest/527b2aa44bbd4738a4e7f37078264c70

Jury Composition:
•    Denis LALOË, Senior Research Engineer, INRAE Centre IdF-Jouy en Josas-Antony, Advisor
•    Frédéric AUSTERLITZ, Senior Research Scientist, CNRS (MNHN), Reporter
•    Pascale LE ROY, Senior Research Scientist, INRAE Centre Bretagne-Normandie, Reporter
•    Laurent SCHIBLER, R&D Director, Allice, Paris, Examiner
•    Laurence MOREAU, Senior Research Scientist, INRAE Centre IdF-Versailles-Grignon, Examiner
•    Xavier ROGNON, Professor, AgroParisTech (Univ. Paris-Saclay), Examiner
Résumé de la thèse en français :  
La sélection génomique, mise en place depuis 2009 en France, a drastiquement modifié les schémas de sélection dans les races bovines laitières françaises de grand effectif en augmentant le nombre de candidats à la sélection et en réduisant les intervalles de génération. L’essor de l’utilisation du transfert embryonnaire a également remanié les schémas de sélection, intensifiant la sélection des mères à taureaux et réduisant encore les intervalles de génération. Ces technologies permettent une augmentation du progrès génétique.
Cependant, si leur utilisation n’est pas maîtrisée, elles mettent en danger la diversité génétique de ces races. Cette perte de diversité, caractérisée par une augmentation de la consanguinité, peut s’accompagner de dépression de consanguinité, d’une baisse de l’efficacité de la sélection et une perte de potentiel adaptatif. Il est donc primordial de comprendre et de prédire l’impact de ces changements sur la diversité génétique à l’ère de la génomique, afin de mieux la maintenir.
Un bilan de la mise en place de la sélection génomique a montré que cette technologie a permis une augmentation du progrès génétique annuel chez la Montbéliarde, la Normande et la Prim’Holstein mais que la perte de diversité génétique s’est accélérée seulement chez la Prim’Holstein.
Une étude par simulations a montré que, dans le cadre de la sélection génomique, l’utilisation intensive du transfert embryonnaire dans un schéma de sélection de type Montbéliarde présentait un risque pour la diversité génétique, et que la réduction du nombre de taureaux dans ces schémas causait à la fois une baisse du progrès génétique et une accélération de la perte de diversité génétique.
Dans la race Montbéliarde, la dépression de consanguinité a fait baisser les performances pour cinq caractères de production et de santé sur les six caractères étudiés. Les effets de la consanguinité sur ces performances sont très hétérogènes le long du génome.
Gérer la consanguinité et ses conséquences dans les races bovines laitières françaises nécessite la mise en œuvre de mesures efficaces, éthiques et applicables sur le terrain.
Mots-clés : Sélection génomique, Transfert embryonnaire, Consanguinité, Diversité génétique ,Bovins laitiers, Dépression de consanguinité
Genetic diversity in the genomic era: evolution of inbreeding and its consequences in three French dairy cattle breeds

Summary of the dissertation in English:  
Genomic selection, implemented in France since 2009, has drastically modified breeding schemes in large French dairy cattle breeds by increasing the number of candidates for selection and reducing generation intervals. The growing use of embryo transfer has also reshaped breeding schemes, intensifying the selection of dams of bulls and further reducing generation intervals. This resulted in an increased genetic gain.
However, if their use is not controlled, they put the genetic diversity of these breeds at risk. This loss of diversity, characterized by an increased inbreeding, can be accompanied by inbreeding depression, a decrease in selection efficiency and a loss of adaptive potential. It is therefore essential to understand and predict the impact of these changes on genetic diversity. We studied the implementation of genomic selection and showed that this technology has led to an increase in annual genetic gain in Montbéliarde, Normande and Prim'Holstein while the loss of genetic diversity has only been accelerated in Prim'Holstein.
We showed by simulations that, in the context of genomic selection, the intensive use of embryo transfer in a Montbéliarde-type breeding scheme presented a risk for genetic diversity, and that the reduction in the number of bulls in these schemes caused both a decrease in genetic gain and an acceleration of the loss of genetic diversity.
In the Montbéliarde breed, inbreeding depression resulted in lower performance for five production and health traits out of six traits studied. The effects of inbreeding on these performances were very heterogeneous along the genome.
Managing inbreeding and its consequences in French dairy cattle breeds requires the implementation of effective, ethical and feasible actions in the field.
Keywords: Genomic selection, Embryo transfer, Inbreeding, Genetic diversity, Dairy cattle, Inbreeding depression