Know more

About cookies

What is a "cookie"?

A "cookie" is a piece of information, usually small and identified by a name, which may be sent to your browser by a website you are visiting. Your web browser will store it for a period of time, and send it back to the web server each time you log on again.

Different types of cookies are placed on the sites:

  • Cookies strictly necessary for the proper functioning of the site
  • Cookies deposited by third party sites to improve the interactivity of the site, to collect statistics

Learn more about cookies and how they work

The different types of cookies used on this site

Cookies strictly necessary for the site to function

These cookies allow the main services of the site to function optimally. You can technically block them using your browser settings but your experience on the site may be degraded.

Furthermore, you have the possibility of opposing the use of audience measurement tracers strictly necessary for the functioning and current administration of the website in the cookie management window accessible via the link located in the footer of the site.

Technical cookies

Name of the cookie


Shelf life

CAS and PHP session cookies

Login credentials, session security



Saving your cookie consent choices

12 months

Audience measurement cookies (AT Internet)

Name of the cookie


Shelf life


Trace the visitor's route in order to establish visit statistics.

13 months


Store the anonymous ID of the visitor who starts the first time he visits the site

13 months


Identify the numbers (unique identifiers of a site) seen by the visitor and store the visitor's identifiers.

13 months

About the AT Internet audience measurement tool :

AT Internet's audience measurement tool Analytics is deployed on this site in order to obtain information on visitors' navigation and to improve its use.

The French data protection authority (CNIL) has granted an exemption to AT Internet's Web Analytics cookie. This tool is thus exempt from the collection of the Internet user's consent with regard to the deposit of analytics cookies. However, you can refuse the deposit of these cookies via the cookie management panel.

Good to know:

  • The data collected are not cross-checked with other processing operations
  • The deposited cookie is only used to produce anonymous statistics
  • The cookie does not allow the user's navigation on other sites to be tracked.

Third party cookies to improve the interactivity of the site

This site relies on certain services provided by third parties which allow :

  • to offer interactive content;
  • improve usability and facilitate the sharing of content on social networks;
  • view videos and animated presentations directly on our website;
  • protect form entries from robots;
  • monitor the performance of the site.

These third parties will collect and use your browsing data for their own purposes.

How to accept or reject cookies

When you start browsing an eZpublish site, the appearance of the "cookies" banner allows you to accept or refuse all the cookies we use. This banner will be displayed as long as you have not made a choice, even if you are browsing on another page of the site.

You can change your choices at any time by clicking on the "Cookie Management" link.

You can manage these cookies in your browser. Here are the procedures to follow: Firefox; Chrome; Explorer; Safari; Opera

For more information about the cookies we use, you can contact INRAE's Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at :


24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

Menu Logo Principal AgroParisTech Université Paris-Saclay


GABI : Génétique Animale et Biologie IntégrativeUnité Mixte de Recherche INRA - AgroParisTech

Michèle TIXIER-BOICHARD, Senior scientist

Genetic diversity and characterisation of morphological mutations in chickens.

INRAE, AgroParisTech, Université Paris Saclay, UMR1313, Animal Genetics and Integrative Biology
Domaine de Vilvert, Bât 211, 78 352 Jouy-en-Josas Cedex
Phone : 33 1 34 65 21 78 ; Fax : 33 1 34 65 22 10

Email : michele.boichard(at)

PSGen (Populations Statistics Genome) Team and Genomic Facilities Team

CV :

1977-1981 : veterinary studies (Alfort 1981)
1982 : master of sciences in quantitative genetics, Université Paris XI-Orsay,
1983 : Veterinary thesis (Faculté de Créteil)
1984 : PhD in quantitative genetics, Université Paris XI-Orsay,
1985 : INRA junior scientist – Animal Genetics Department
1999 : INRA senior scientist
2004-2006 : deputy president of INRA research center of Jouy-en-Josas
2006-2011 : scientific director of the ‘Bioresources – Ecology - Agronomy’ research fields at the Higher Education and Research ministry
2008-2009 : training at the Institute of Higher Studies for Science and Technology (IHEST). Member of IHEST fellows association. 
2010-present : Chairwoman of the National Animal Cryobank
2012-2019 : Coordinator the CRB-Anim "Investment for the Future" infrastructure
2012-2019 : Deputy Scientific Director for Environment sector of INRAE

Research fields :

After conducting a selection experiment in laying hens, I became involved in characterization studies of genetic resources and molecular identification of morphological mutations in chickens. I am particularly interested by genes controlling plumage distribution and colour and got more recently involved in studies about chicken domestication.

Other activities :

President of the National Cryobank governing board.
Elected Vice-President of the World Poultry Science Association (WPSA)
Associated editor of BMC Genetics and World Poultry Science Journal. 

Recent publications and other productions :

Restoux G., Rognon X., Vieaud A., Guemene D., Petitjean F., Rouger R., Brard-Fudulea S., Lubac-Paye S., Chiron G., Tixier-Boichard M. 2022. Managing genetic diversity in breeding programs of small populations: the case of French local chicken breeds. Genet Sel Evol 54:56.

Gascuel-Odoux C., Lescourret F., Dedieu B., Detang-Dessendre C., Faverdin P., Hazard L., Litrico-Chiarelli I., Petit S., Roques L., Reboud X., Tixier-Boichard M., de Vries H., Caquet T. 2022. A research agenda for scaling up agroecology in European countries. Agronomy for Sustainable Development. 42:53.

Tixier-Boichard M., Fabre S., Dhorne-Pollet S., Goubil A., Acloque H., Vincent-Naulleau S., Ross P., Wang Y., Chanthavixay G., Cheng H., Ernst C., Leesburg V., Giuffra E., Zhou H., the Collaborative Working Group.  2021. Tissue Resources for the Functional Annotation of Animal Genomes. Front Genet. 12:666265.

Jehl F., Degalez F., Bernard M., Lecerf F., Lagoutte L., Désert C., Coulée M., Bouchez O., Leroux S., Abasht B., Tixier-Boichard M., Bed’hom B., Burlot T., Gourichon D., Bardou P., Acloque H., Foissac S., Djebali S., Giuffra E., Zerjal T., Pitel F., Klopp C., Lagarrigue S. 2021. RNA-Seq data for reliable SNP detection and genotype calling: interest for coding variant characterization and cis-regulation analysis by allele-specific expression in livestock species. Front Genet. 12:65570.

Schwochow D., Bornelöv S., Jiang T., Li J., Gourichon D., Bed'Hom B., Dorshorst B.J., Chuong C.M., Tixier-Boichard M., Andersson L. 2021. The feather pattern autosomal barring in chicken is strongly associated with segregation at the MC1R locus. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. Early access.

Mariadassou M., Suez M., Sathyakumar S., Vignal A., Arca M., Nicolas P., Faraut T., Esquerré D., Nishibori M., Vieaud A., Chen C.F., Pham H.M., Roman Y., Hospital F., Zerjal T., Rognon X., Tixier-Boichard M. 2021. Unraveling the history of the genus Gallus through whole genome sequencing. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 158, 107044.

Silva R.D., Gardyn O.C., Hiemstra S.J., Marques J.G.O., Tixier-Boichard M., Moran D. 2021.  Rationalizing ex situ collection of reproductive materials for endangered livestock breed conservation. Ecological Economics, 181, 106916.

Silva R.D., Gardyn O.C., Hiemstra S.J., Marques J.G.O., Tixier-Boichard M., Moran D. 2021. Ex situ and in situ data for endangered livestock breeds in Spain. Data in Brief, 35, 106805.

Tixier-Boichard M., Lecerf F., Hérault F., Bardou P., Klopp C. 2020. Le projet « Mille Génomes Gallus » : partager les données de séquences pour mieux les utiliser. INRAE Prod. Anim., 33: 189-202.

Tixier-Boichard M. 2020. From the jungle fowl to highly performing chickens: are we reaching limits? Worlds Poultry Science Journal, 76: 2-17.

Lien CY, Tixier-Boichard M, Wu SW, Chen CF. 2020. Identification of QTL and loci for egg production traits to tropical climate conditions in chickens. Livestock Science, 234: 103980.

Zomerdijk F, Hiemstra SJ, d'Arbaumont M, Tixier-Boichard M, Boettcher P. 2020. Quality Management Practices of Gene Banks for Livestock: A Global Review. Biopreservation and Biobanking, 18: 244-253.

Foissac S, Djebali S, Munyard K, Vialaneix N, Rau A, Muret K, Esquerre D, Zytnicki M, Derrien T, Bardou P, Blanc F, Cabau C, Crisci E, Dhorne-Pollet S, Drouet F, Faraut T, Gonzalez I, Goubil A, Lacroix-Lamande S, Laurent F, Marthey S, Marti-Marimon M, Momal-Leisenring R, Mompart F, Quere P, Robelin D, San Cristobal M, Tosser-Klopp G, Vincent-Naulleau S, Fabre S, Pinard-van der Laan MH, Klopp C, Tixier-Boichard M, Acloque H, Lagarrigue S, Giuffra E. 2019. Multi-species annotation of transcriptome and chromatin structure in domesticated animals. BMC Biology, 17: 108.

Vignal A, Boitard S, Thebault N, Dayo GK, Yapi-Gnaore V, Karim IYA, Berthouly-Salazar C, Palinkas-Bodzsar N, Guemene D, Thibaud-Nissen F, Warren WC, Tixier-Boichard M, Rognon X. 2019. A guinea fowl genome assembly provides new evidence on evolution following domestication and selection in galliformes. Molecular Ecology Resources, 19 997-1014.

Li JY, Bed'hom B, Marthey S, Valade M, Dureux A, Moroldo M, Pechoux C, Coville JL, Gourichon D, Vieaud A, Dorshorst B, Andersson L, Tixier-Boichard M. 2019. A missense mutation in TYRP1 causes the chocolate plumage color in chicken and alters melanosome structure. Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research, 32: 381- 390.

Thelie A, Bailliard A, Seigneurin F, Zerjal T, Tixier-Boichard M, Blesbois E. 2019. Chicken semen cryopreservation and use for the restoration of rare genetic resources. Poultry Science, 98 : 447-455.

Ducrocq V, Laloe D, Swaminathan M, Rognon X, Tixier-Boichard M, Zerjal T. 2018. Genomics for Ruminants in Developing Countries: From Principles to Practice. Frontiers in Genetics, 9 : 251.

Roy J, Tardieu F, Tixier-Boichard M, Schurr U. 2017. European infrastructures for sustainable agriculture. Nature Plants, 3 : 756758.

Lien CY, Tixier-Boichard M, Wu SW, Wang WF, Ng CS, Chen CF. 2017. Detection of QTL for traits related to adaptation to sub-optimal climatic conditions in chickens. Genetics Selection Evolution, 49: 39.

Thalmann DS, Ring H, Sundstrom E, Cao XF, Larsson M, Kerje S, Hoglund A, Fogelholm J, Wright D, Jemth P, Hallbook F, Bed'Hom B, Dorshorst B, Tixier-Boichard M, Andersson L. 2017. The evolution of Sex-linked barring alleles in chickens involves both regulatory and coding changes in CDKN2A. PLOS Genetics, 13: e1006665.

Phocas F, Belloc C, Bidanel J, Delaby L, Dourmad JY, Dumont B, Ezanno P, Fortun-Lamothe L, Foucras G, Frappat B, Gonzalez-Garcia E, Hazard D, Larzul C, Lubac S, Mignon-Grasteau S, Moreno-Romieux C, Tixier-Boichard M, Brochard M. 2017. Quels programmes d’amélioration génétique des animaux pour des systèmes d’élevage agro-écologiques ? INRA Productions Animales, 30: 31-46.

Phocas F, Belloc C, Bidanel J, Delaby L, Dourmad JY, Dumont B, Ezanno P, Fortun-Lamothe L, Foucras G, Frappat B, Gonzalez-Garcia E, Hazard D, Larzul C, Lubac S, Mignon-Grasteau S, Moreno CR, Tixier-Boichard M, Brochard M. 2016. Review: Towards the agroecological management of ruminants, pigs and poultry through the development of sustainable breeding programmes: I-selection goals and criteria. Animal, 10: 1749-1759.

Phocas F, Belloc C, Bidanel J, Delaby L, Dourmad JY, Dumont B, Ezanno P, Fortun-Lamothe L, Foucras G, Frappat B, Gonzalez-Garcia E, Hazard D, Larzul C, Lubac S, Mignon-Grasteau S, Moreno CR, Tixier-Boichard M, Brochard M. 2016. Review: Towards the agroecological management of ruminants, pigs and poultry through the development of sustainable breeding programmes. II. Breeding strategies. Animal, 10 : 1760-1769.

Loyau T, Zerjal T, Rodenburg TB, Fablet J, Tixier-Boichard M, Pinard-van der Laan MH, Mignon-Grasteau S. 2016. Heritability of body surface temperature in hens estimated by infrared thermography at normal or hot temperatures and genetic correlations with egg and feather quality. Animal, 10 : 1594-1601.

Bed'Hom B, Fillon V, Gourichon D, Vieaud A, Tixier-Boichard M. 2016. When morphological mutations unravel chromosomal changes in domestic chicken. Chromosome Research, 24 : S14-S15.

Pham MH, Tran XH, Berthouly-Salazar C, Tixier-Boichard M, Chen CF, Lee YP. 2016. Monitoring of genetic diversity in Taiwan conserved chickens assessed by pedigree and molecular data. Livestock Science, 184 : 85-91.

Mahammi FZ, Gaouar SBS, Laloe D, Faugeras R, Tabet-Aoul N, Rognon X, Tixier-Boichard M, Saidi-Mehtar N. 2016. A molecular analysis of the patterns of genetic diversity in local chickens from western Algeria in comparison with commercial lines and wild jungle fowls. Journal of Animal Breeding And Genetics, 133 : 59-70.

Bruford MW, Ginja C, Hoffmann I, Joost S, Orozco-terWengell P, Alberto FJ, Amaral AJ, Barbato M, Biscarini F, Colli L, Costa M, Curik I, Duruz S, Ferencakovic M, Fischer D, Fitak R, Groeneveld LF, Hall SJG, Hanotte O, Hassan FU, Helsen P, Iacolina L, Kantanen J, Leempoel K, Lenstra JA, Ajmone-Marsan P, Masembe C, Megens HJ, Miele M, Neuditschko M, Nicolazzi EL, Pompanon F, Roosen J, Sevane N, Smetko A, Stambuk A, Streeter I, Stucki S, Supakorn C, Da Gama LT, Tixier-Boichard M, Wegmann D, Zhan XJ. 2015. Prospects and challenges for the conservation of farm animal genomic resources, 2015-2025. Frontiers in Genetics, 6 : 314.

Tixier-Boichard M, Verrier E, Rognon X, Zerjal T. 2015. Farm animal genetic and genomic resources from an agroecological perspective. Frontiers in Genetics, 6 : 153.

Mignon-Grasteau S, Moreri U, Narcy A, Rousseau X, Rodenburg TB, Tixier-Boichard M, Zerjal T. 2015. Robustness to chronic heat stress in laying hens: a meta-analysis. Poultry Science, 94 : 586-600.

Andersson L, Archibald AL, Bottema CD, Brauning R, Burgess SC, Burt DW, Casas E, Cheng HH, Clarke L, Couldrey C, Dalrymple BP, Elsik CG, Foissac S, Giuffra E, Groenen MA, Hayes BJ, Huang LS, Khatib H, Kijas JW, Kim H, Lunney JK, McCarthy FM, McEwan JC, Moore S, Nanduri B, Notredame C, Palti Y, Plastow GS, Reecy JM, Rohrer GA, Sarropoulou E, Schmidt CJ, Silverstein J, Tellam RL, Tixier-Boichard M, Tosser-Klopp G, Tuggle CK, Vilkki J, White SN, Zhao SH, Zhou H. 2015. Coordinated international action to accelerate genome-to-phenome with FAANG, the Functional Annotation of Animal Genomes project. Genome Biology, 16 : 57.

Moro C, Cornette R, Vieaud A, Bruneau N, Gourichon D, Bed'hom B, Tixier-Boichard M. 2015. Quantitative Effect of a CNV on a Morphological Trait in Chickens. PLOS One, 10 : e0118706.

Dorshorst B, Harun-Or-Rashid M, Bagherpoor AJ, Rubin CJ, Ashwell C, Gourichon D, Tixier-Boichard M, Hallbook F, Andersson L. 2015. A Genomic Duplication is Associated with Ectopic Eomesodermin Expression in the Embryonic Chicken Comb and Two Duplex-comb Phenotypes. PLOS Genetics, 11 : e1004947.

Tixier-Boichard M., Lescourret F., 2015. Mieux utiliser la biodiversité pour réussir la transition agro-écologique : une synthèse de l’atelier ‘Utiliser la biodiversité’. Innovations Agronomiques 43, 41-50.

Tixier-Boichard M., Verrier E., Rognon X., Zerjal T, 2015. Farm animal genetic and genomic resources from an agroecological perspective. Front. Genet. 6:153.

Wragg D, Mwacharo Jm, Alcalde Ja, Wang C, Han J, Gourichon D, Tixier-Boichard  M, Hanotte O, 2013. Endogenous Retrovirus EAV-HP Linked to Evolution of Blue Eggs in Mapuche Fowl. PLoS One, 8: e71393

Pham M. H, Berthouly-Salazar C., Tran X. H., Chang W. H.,. Crooijmans R. P. M. A, Lin D.Y., Hoang V. T., Lee Y. P., Tixier-Boichard M., Chen C- F. 2013. Genetic diversity of Vietnamese domestic chicken populations as decision-making support for conservation strategies. Animal Genetics, 44: 509–521.

Chazara O, Chang Cs, Bruneau N, Benabdeljelil K, Kayang Bk, Loukou Ne, Osei-Amponsah R, Yapi-Gnaore V, Youssao Iak, Chen Cf, Pinard-Van Der Laan Mh, Tixier-Boichard  M, Bed'hom B, 2013. Diversity and evolution of the highly polymorphic tandem repeat LEI0258 in the chicken MHC-B region. Immunogenetics, 6: 447-459

Wang Yq., Gao Y., Imsland F., Gu Xr., Feng Cg., Liu Rr., Song C.,  Tixier-Boichard M., Gourichon D., Li Qy., Chen Kw., Li Hf., Andersson L., Hu Xx., Li N., 2012. The Crest phenotype in chicken is associated with ectopic expression of HOXC8 in cranial skin. PLoS One 7(4): e34012

Leroy G., Kayang B.B., Youssao I.A.K., Yapi-Gnaore C.V., Osei-Amponsah R., Loukou N.E., Fotsa J.C., Benabdeljelil K., Bed'hom B., Tixier-Boichard M., Rognon X., 2012 Gene diversity, agroecological structure and introgression patterns among village chicken populations across North West and Central Africa. BMC Genetics, 13:34

Imsland F., Feng Cg., Boije H., Bed’hom B., Fillon V., Dorshorst B., Rubin Cj., Liu Rr., Gao Y., Gu Xr., Wang Yq., Gourichon D., Zody Mc., Zecchin W., Vieaud A., Tixier-Boichard M., Hu Xx., Hallbook F., Li N., Andersson L., 2012. The rose-comb mutation in chickens constitutes a structural rearrangement causing both altered comb morphology and defective sperm motility. PLoS Genetics, 8 (6): e1002775.

Boije H., Harun-Or-Rashid M., Lee Yj., Imsland  F., Bruneau N., Vieaud A., Gourichon D., Tixier-Boichard M., Bed'hom B., Andersson L, Hallböök F., 2012. Sonic hedgehog-signalling patterns the developing chicken comb as revealed by exploration of the Pea-comb mutation. PLoS One,7 (12):e50890

Youssao I.A. K., Senou M., Dahouda M., Idrissou N. D., Amoussou-Sydol E., Tougan U. P., Ahounou S., Yapi-Gnaore V. , Kayang B., Rognon X., Tixier-Boichard M. Kpodekon M. T. 2011. Laying performances and egg quality characteristics of  F1 crossbred hens resulting from Label Rouge (T55XSA51) and two local ecotypes as parental lines.  International J.  Livestock Production, 2: 69-78

Tixier-Boichard M., Bed’hom B., Rognon X. 2011. Chicken domestication : from archeology to genomics. C.R. Biologies 334: 197-204.

Mou C., Pitel F., Gourichon D., Vignoles F., Tzika A., Tato P., Yu L., Burt D.W., Bed’hom B.,Tixier-Boichard M., Painter K.J., Headon D., 2011. Cryptic patterning of avian skin confers a developmental facility for loss of neck feathering. PLoS Biology, 9(3): e1001028. 

Boettcher P.J., Tixier-Boichard M., Toro M.A., Simianer H., Eding H., Gandini G., Joost S., Garcia D., Colli L., Ajmone-Marsan P. and the GLOBALDIV consortium, 2010. Objectives, criteria and methods for using molecular genetic data in priority setting for conservation of animal genetic resources. Animal Genetics, 41: Suppl 1, 64-77.

Hellström AR, Sundström E, Gunnarsson U, Bed'hom B, Tixier-Boichard M, Honaker CF, Sahlqvist AS, Jensen P, Kämpe O, Siegel PB, Kerje S, Andersson L., 2010. Sex-linked barring in chickens is controlled by the CDKN2A /B tumour suppressor locus. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 23: 521-530.

Osei-Amponsah R., Kayang B.B., Naazie A., Osei Y.D., Tixier-Boichard M., Rognon X., 2010. Genetic diversity of Forest and Savannah chicken populations of Ghana as estimated by microsatellite markers. Animal Science Journal, 81: 297-303.

Rubin,C.-J., Zody,M.C., Eriksson,J., Meadows,J.R.S., Sherwood,E., Webster,M.T., Jiang,L., Ingman,M., Sharpe,T., Ka,S., Hallböök,F., Besnier,F., Carlborg,Ö., Bed’hom,B., Tixier-Boichard,M., Jensen,P., Siegel,P., Lindblad-Toh,K. and Andersson, L. 2010. Whole genome resequencing reveals loci under selection during chicken domestication. Nature 464: 587-591

Chen C.F., Gourichon D., Huang N.Z., Lee Y.P., Bordas A., Tixier-Boichard M., 2009. Performance comparison of dwarf laying hens segregating for the naked neck gene in temperate and subtropical environments. Genetics Selection Evolution 2009, 41:13

Berthouly, C., B. Bed'Hom, M. Tixier-Boichard, C. F. Chen, Y. P. Lee, D. Laloe, H. Legros, E. Verrier, X. Rognon. 2008. Using molecular markers and multivariate methods to study the genetic diversity on local European and Asian chicken breeds. Animal Genetics, 39:121-129

Eriksson J., Larson G., Gunnarsson U., Bed'hom B., Tixier-Boichard M., Stromstedt L., Wright D., Jungerius A., Vereijken A., Randi E., Jensen P., Andersson L., 2008. Identification of the Yellow Skin gene reveals a hybrid origin of the domestic chicken. PLoS Genet, 4: e1000010

Tixier-Boichard M., Ayalew W., Jianlin H., 2008. Inventory, characterisation and monitoring of animal genetic resources. Animal Genetic Resources Information, 42: 29-47.

Blesbois E., Seigneurin F., Grasseau I., Limouzin C., Besnard J., Gourichon D., Coquerelle G., Rault P., Tixier-BOICHARD M. 2007. Semen cryopreservation for ex-situ management of genetic diversity in chickens : creation of the French Avian Cryobank. Poultry Science, 86, 555-564.

Other productions :

Tixier-Boichard M., Bouvier E., Duclos M., Geraert P-A., Lessire M., Magnin M., 2012. Dossier de candidature de la branche française de la WPSA pour l’organisation du congrès mondial d’aviculture à Paris en 2020.  41 pages

Tixier-Boichard M., De Renty P., 2014. Compte-rendu scientifique 2013 Infrastructure CRB-Anim du programme Investissements d’Avenir. 8 pages.

Tixier-Boichard M., 2014. Partage des données relatives aux ressources génétiques et génomiques : état des lieux, analyse stratégique et besoins d’accompagnement. Rapport du groupe de travail ‘ressources génomiques’ du chantier INRA ‘open data’.  10 pages. Membres du groupe : P. Bessières, S. Carrère, S. Casaregola, G. Lassalle, F. Legeai, N. Mohellibi, F. Moreews, J-L. Noyer, H. Quesneville, L. Ranjard, S. Sidibe-Bocs,

Tixier-Boichard M., Moroldo M., Bevilacqua C., Martin P., Bouet S., Vincent-Naulleau S., 2013. @BRIDGe : @nimal Biological Resources for Integrative and Digital Genomics. Dossier de labellisation CNOC, 24 pages